Paula England. 1982. "The Failure of Human Capital Theory to Explain Occupational Sex Segregation." Journal of Human Resources 17, 3 (Summer): 358-70.
Paula England, George Farkas, Barbara Kilbourne, and Thomas Dou. 1988. "Explaining Occupational Sex Segregation and Wages: Findings from a Model with Fixed Effects." American Sociological Review 53, 4: 544-558
Barbara Kilbourne, Paula England, George Farkas, Kurt Beron, and Dorothea Weir. 1994. "Returns to Skills, Compensating Differentials, and Gender Bias: Effects of Occupational Characteristics on the Wages of White Women and Men." American Journal of Sociology 100:689-719
Paula England, Lori Reid, and Barbara Stanek Kilbourne.1996. “The Effect of the Sex Composition of Jobs on Starting Wages in an Organization: Findings from the NLSY.” Demography 33,4: 511-521.
Michelle J. Budig and Paula England. 2001. “The Wage Penalty for Motherhood.” American Sociological Review 66:204-225.
Paula England, Jonathan Bearak, Michelle Budig, Melissa Hodges. 2015. "How the Motherhood Penalty Varies by Wage, Cognitive Skill, and Race: A Reassessment." Unpublished as of 4-2015, available from authors.
What I learned from NLS data
I've learned about factors influencing gender and parenthood-status differences in pay.
Why I chose NLS data
Its panel nature allowed me to use fixed-effects models.
Ohio State University Center for Human Resource Research
This site was created at the Center for Human Resource Research (CHRR) at The Ohio State University to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS). The NLS is a program of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. CHRR has conducted the NLS since the program began in 1965, in partnership with the U.S. Census Bureau (from 1965 to 2003) and NORC at the University of Chicago (from 1978 to the present).