NLS user since 2007
I have used the NLSY97 to investigate the effects of exposure to violence on the outcomes of black young males. I have made several interesting findings about this topic. First - over a quarter of black young males in the NLSY97 reported seeing someone shot or shot at before the age of 12. Second - conditioning on this variable, and this variable alone, explains a large share of subsequent violent behavior. Third - this pattern persists even when conditioning on mother's educational attainment or household type. And fourth - these patterns of behavior are not evident if one were to measure exposure to violence using county-level violent crime rates.
To my knowledge, there is no other data set that would allow someone to investigate effects of exposure to violence in such depth as the NLSY97 - especially at the national level.